Vol 1 No 1 (2021)

Primus inter pares: A Comparison and Ranking of COVID-19 Vaccines

Eyüp Çetin
New York Business Global, College Park, Maryland, USA
Hilal Özen
Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Trakya University, Edirne, Turkey
Ömer Özen
Department of Informatics, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey
Published October 16, 2021
  • COVID-19 vaccines,
  • Vaccination,
  • SARS-CoV-2,
  • Vaccine comparison and ranking,
  • Health policy,
  • Grey relational analysis
  • ...More
How to Cite
Çetin, E., Özen, H., & Özen, Ömer. (2021). Primus inter pares: A Comparison and Ranking of COVID-19 Vaccines. Journal of Analytics, 1(1), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.29020/nybg.ja.v1i1.6


As the world fights the recent devastating calamity, coronavirus pandemic, humanity experiences the most accelerated vaccine development and vaccination in history. We holistically compare, rate and rank SARS-Cov-2 vaccines as well as vaccine platforms in multi-attributes as the first study in the literature. We use grey relational analysis as a multi-criteria decision-making tool, wider grey systems theory to compare, rate and rank the vaccines. We select 12 leading vaccines and 14 attributes from efficacy rate, safety/reactogenicity and protection against variants to children use, from approvals to prices, to logistics and market share to form a 360-degree comparison. According to equally weighted attributes, Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine is at the top rank. The second rank belongs to Moderna when the third belongs to Sinovac. The top three are followed by Oxford-AstraZeneca, Johnson & Johnson, and others. Pfizer/BioNTech is also at the first rank and followed by Moderna and Novavax with respect to 40% weighted efficacy rate. Our ranking approach, which is unbiased and reproducible employs a Wuhan- originated tool, grey systems theory to rank the vaccines against SARS-CoV-2, another Wuhan- originated agent. Since all vaccines are valuable, our effort is to determine the primus inter pares (= first among equals).